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Carbon 14 dating 2 | Life on earth and in the universe | Cosmology & Astronomy | Khan Academy
 
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Carbon 14 Dating 2. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/cosmology-and-astronomy/life-earth-universe/measuring-age-tutorial/v/potassium-argon-k-ar-dating?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=cosmologystronomy Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/cosmology-and-astronomy/life-earth-universe/measuring-age-tutorial/v/carbon-14-dating-1?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=cosmologystronomy Cosmology & Astronomy on Khan Academy: The Earth is huge, but it is tiny compared to the Sun (which is super huge). But the Sun is tiny compared to the solar system which is tiny compared to the distance to the next star. Oh, did we mention that there are over 100 billion stars in our galaxy (which is about 100,000 light years in diameter) which is one of hundreds of billions of galaxies in just the observable universe (which might be infinite for all we know). Don't feel small. We find it liberating. Your everyday human stresses are nothing compared to this enormity that we are a part of. Enjoy the fact that we get to be part of this vastness! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Cosmology & Astronomy channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UChNPnEkW8LYZ5Rwi8_A2-DA?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Просмотров: 49156 Khan Academy
SDSU Geological Sciences Webinar - Kathleen R  Johnson
 
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"Reconstructing Asian Monsoon History from Chinese Speleothems" Kathleen R. Johnson, Department of Earth System Science University of California, Irvine Via SDSU While we know that modern anthropogenic climate change is superimposed upon significant natural climate variability, the instrumental record of climate is too short to capture the full range of this variability. In order to fully understand and predict future changes, therefore, high-resolution, welldated paleoclimate records are needed to extend the record. This paleoclimate data allows us to quantify natural variability and learn how the climate system responded to past changes in boundary conditions and forcings and provides a vital test for state-of-the-art coupled climate models. Cave calcite deposits (speleothems) are widely studied paleoclimate archives that have led to significantly improved records of past climate variability over a wide range of timescales (seasonal to glacialinterglacial), most notably in low-latitude and monsoon regions. Speleothems are well-suited for terrestrial climate reconstruction because: they tend to be very pure and well-preserved; they usually contain clear visible growth banding which, like tree rings, is often annual in nature; they can be very precisely dated using uranium-series radiometric dating methods; and they contain numerous types of physical and geochemical proxy data. In this lecture, I will present an introduction to speleothem based paleoclimate proxies and describe ongoing modern calibration studies we are conducting at Heshang Cave, China to test and develop new seasonal resolution proxies of Asian monsoon rainfall. In addition, I will present multiple records of Asian monsoon rainfall obtained from stable isotope and trace element variations in Chinese speleothems and discuss the important role of the Asian monsoon in the global climate system.
Uranium-thorium dating
 
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Video Software we use: https://amzn.to/2KpdCQF Ad-free videos. You can support us by purchasing something through our Amazon-Url, thanks :) Uranium-thorium dating, also called thorium-230 dating, uranium-series disequilibrium dating or uranium-series dating, is a radiometric dating technique commonly used to determine the age of calcium carbonate materials such as speleothem or coral.Unlike other commonly used radiometric dating techniques such as rubidium-strontium or uranium-lead dating, the uranium-thorium technique does not measure accumulation of a stable end-member decay product.Instead, the uranium-thorium technique calculates an age from the degree to which secular equilibrium has been restored between the radioactive isotope thorium-230 and its radioactive parent uranium-234 within a sample.Thorium is not soluble in natural waters under conditions found at or near the surface of the earth, so materials grown in or from these waters do not usually contain thorium. ---Image-Copyright-and-Permission--- About the author(s): . The original uploader was Paulsheer at English Wikipedia License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0) Author(s): Paulsheer ---Image-Copyright-and-Permission--- This channel is dedicated to make Wikipedia, one of the biggest knowledge databases in the world available to people with limited vision. Article available under a Creative Commons license Image source in video
Просмотров: 860 WikiWikiup
C14 Dating Pt. 3, Minigames! | ChrisTenarium
 
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I'm certain it was easy but it was my one chance to show YouTube comments I was good at something okay! Game: http://winterwolves.com/c14dating.htm --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Twitter: https://twitter.com/ChrisTenarium Twitch: http://www.twitch.tv/christenarium Tumblr: http://tenarium.tumblr.com/ Outro Music and Royalty Free Music by http://www.epidemicsound.com/ All design and artwork on channel by: http://www.twitch.tv/doomkittenplays
Просмотров: 2271 ChrisTenarium
Malcolm McCulloch - Acid trip to Australia’s future: Ocean acidification and coral reefs
 
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Seminar title: Acid trip to Australia’s future: Ocean acidification and coral reefs Presented by: Malcolm McCulloch Date: 18-19th October 2007 Seminar type: CoralCoE symposium Presentation given at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies 2007 symposium "Coral reef futures". Bio: Malcolm's research looks at the application of isotopic and trace element geochemical methods to better understand the impacts of both climatic and anthropogenic processes on the Earth's environment. Research on modern corals takes advantage of Australia's natural assets, corals in the Great Barrier Reef of Queensland, as well as coral reefs of Australia's near neighbours. High resolution, continuous records of both climate and anthropogenic impacts are being extracted from living corals, of up to 300 to 400 years age, to assess the nature and character of past variations in climate and anthropogenic influences. Research on fossil corals utilises high precision TIMS U-series ages to determine the timing and rate of sea level changes combined with climate proxies for SST (Sr/Ca) and rainfall (oxygen isotopes). Development of laser ablation ICP-MS methods for in-situ analyses of trace elements in carbonates (corals) to enable high resolution temporal studies of climate change to be undertaken. Other interests include U-series dating of speleothems, and the application of natural occurring isotopic systems to trace sediment provenances and sources of nutrient (P) in rivers and the nearshore marine environment.
Radiocarbon dating | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Radiocarbon dating Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon. The method was developed in the late 1940s by Willard Libby, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in 1960. It is based on the fact that radiocarbon (14C) is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen. The resulting 14C combines with atmospheric oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide, which is incorporated into plants by photosynthesis; animals then acquire 14C by eating the plants. When the animal or plant dies, it stops exchanging carbon with its environment, and from that point onwards the amount of 14C it contains begins to decrease as the 14C undergoes radioactive decay. Measuring the amount of 14C in a sample from a dead plant or animal such as a piece of wood or a fragment of bone provides information that can be used to calculate when the animal or plant died. The older a sample is, the less 14C there is to be detected, and because the half-life of 14C (the period of time after which half of a given sample will have decayed) is about 5,730 years, the oldest dates that can be reliably measured by this process date to around 50,000 years ago, although special preparation methods occasionally permit accurate analysis of older samples. Research has been ongoing since the 1960s to determine what the proportion of 14C in the atmosphere has been over the past fifty thousand years. The resulting data, in the form of a calibration curve, is now used to convert a given measurement of radiocarbon in a sample into an estimate of the sample's calendar age. Other corrections must be made to account for the proportion of 14C in different types of organisms (fractionation), and the varying levels of 14C throughout the biosphere (reservoir effects). Additional complications come from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil, and from the above-ground nuclear tests done in the 1950s and 1960s. Because the time it takes to convert biological materials to fossil fuels is substantially longer than the time it takes for its 14C to decay below detectable levels, fossil fuels contain almost no 14C, and as a result there was a noticeable drop in the proportion of 14C in the atmosphere beginning in the late 19th century. Conversely, nuclear testing increased the amount of 14C in the atmosphere, which attained a maximum in about 1965 of almost twice what it had been before the testing began. Measurement of radiocarbon was originally done by beta-counting devices, which counted the amount of beta radiation emitted by decaying 14C atoms in a sample. More recently, accelerator mass spectrometry has become the method of choice; it counts all the 14C atoms in the sample and not just the few that happen to decay during the measurements; it can therefore be used with much smaller samples (as small as individual plant seeds), and gives results much more quickly. The development of radiocarbon dating has had a profound impact on archaeology. In addition to permitting more accurate dating within archaeological sites than previous methods, it allows comparison of dates of events across great distances. Histories of archaeology often refer to its impact as the "radiocarbon revolution". Radiocarbon dating has allowed key transitions in prehistory to be dated, such as the end of the last ice age, and the beginning of the Neolithic and Bronze Age in different regions.
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Carbon-14 | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Carbon-14 00:01:56 1 Radioactive decay and detection 00:03:24 2 Radiocarbon dating 00:05:08 3 Origin 00:05:16 3.1 Natural production in the atmosphere 00:07:18 3.2 Other carbon-14 sources 00:08:09 3.3 Formation during nuclear tests 00:08:54 3.4 Emissions from nuclear power plants 00:09:29 4 Occurrence 00:09:38 4.1 Dispersion in the environment 00:10:49 4.2 Total inventory 00:11:32 4.3 In fossil fuels 00:13:34 4.4 In the human body 00:15:03 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Carbon-14, (14C), or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons. Its presence in organic materials is the basis of the radiocarbon dating method pioneered by Willard Libby and colleagues (1949) to date archaeological, geological and hydrogeological samples. Carbon-14 was discovered on February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Its existence had been suggested by Franz Kurie in 1934.There are three naturally occurring isotopes of carbon on Earth: carbon-12, which makes up 99% of all carbon on Earth; carbon-13, which makes up 1%; and carbon-14, which occurs in trace amounts, making up about 1 or 1.5 atoms per 1012 atoms of carbon in the atmosphere. Carbon-12 and carbon-13 are both stable, while carbon-14 is unstable and has a half-life of 5,730±40 years. Carbon-14 decays into nitrogen-14 through beta decay. A gram of carbon containing 1 atom of carbon-14 per 1012 atoms will emit ~0.2 beta particles per second. The primary natural source of carbon-14 on Earth is cosmic ray action on nitrogen in the atmosphere, and it is therefore a cosmogenic nuclide. However, open-air nuclear testing between 1955–1980 contributed to this pool. The different isotopes of carbon do not differ appreciably in their chemical properties. This resemblance is used in chemical and biological research, in a technique called carbon labeling: carbon-14 atoms can be used to replace nonradioactive carbon, in order to trace chemical and biochemical reactions involving carbon atoms from any given organic compound.
Просмотров: 2 wikipedia tts
A day in an organic geochemistry lab
 
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MIT's Dr. Christian Hallman describes how a modern organic geochemistry lab runs, using a GC-MS (gas chromatography mass spectrometer).
Просмотров: 924 Complex Life
Here be Dragons 2018: Track A
 
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Sea monsters such as the kraken, prister, and rosmarus indicated uncharted territory on elaborate new maps of the world in medieval times. Despite many advances in mapping technology and data acquisition in the last 500 years, our ocean remains largely uncharted and poorly understood. Here be Dragons convened explorers, innovators, artists, scientists, and storytellers to identify the uncharted territories that still exist in ocean exploration and storytelling. In response, MIT students will work with explorers to develop and present collaborative projects to deploy new and emerging technologies in the field that address gaps in our understanding and sharing of the ocean. Select proposals will be funded for Rapid Field Deployments. In collaboration with the National Geographic Society and New England Aquarium. Find the full program and more information at: https://www.media.mit.edu/events/here-be-dragons/ License: CC-BY-4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)
Просмотров: 910 MIT Media Lab
The Foundation of Climate Science
 
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The Foundation of Climate Science - Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming - 2010-05-06 - Even after months of personal attacks against climate scientists stemming from a manufactured scandal over stolen emails, the underlying science behind the need to stem the tide of heat-trapping emissions remains solid. To explain what we know about climate change, and why and how we know it, Chairman Edward J. Markey (D-Mass.) and the Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming hosted top-level American climate scientists at a congressional hearing on Thursday, May 6, 2010. The scientists addressed the claims of deniers head-on. Thursday's panel featured a member of the investigative panel convened by the University of East Anglia and led by Lord Ron Oxburgh to review the stolen emails from that school's Climactic Research Unit. The "Oxburgh Inquiry" exonerated the scientists who were attacked following the emails, saying they "saw no evidence of any deliberate scientific malpractice in any of the work." The hearing also included three scientists involved in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports, which have also been attacked by climate science deniers. The Republican witness on the panel was Lord Christopher Walter Monckton, 3rd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley. WITNESSES: Dr. Lisa Graumlich, Director, School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona, and member of the "Oxburgh Inquiry" panel; Dr. Chris Field, Director, Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, and co-chair of "Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability" portion of new IPCC report due in 2014; Dr. James McCarthy, Professor of Biological Oceanography, Harvard University, past President and Chair of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, co-chair of "Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability" portion of IPCC report published in 2001; Dr. James Hurrell, Senior Scientist, National Center for Atmospheric Research, contributor to IPCC reports; Lord Christopher Monckton, Chief Policy Adviser, Science and Public Policy Institute. Video provided by the U.S. House of Representatives.
Просмотров: 6347 HouseResourceOrg
Thorium | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Thorium 00:01:58 1 Bulk properties 00:05:41 2 Isotopes 00:10:59 2.1 Radiometric dating 00:12:53 3 Chemistry 00:15:51 3.1 Reactivity 00:17:09 3.2 Inorganic compounds 00:19:57 3.3 Coordination compounds 00:20:12 3.4 Organothorium compounds 00:22:25 4 Occurrence 00:22:56 4.1 Formation 00:23:05 4.2 On Earth 00:24:48 5 History 00:25:55 5.1 Erroneous report 00:26:04 5.2 Discovery 00:29:27 5.3 Initial chemical classification 00:29:37 5.4 First uses 00:29:49 5.5 Radioactivity 00:30:43 5.6 Further classification 00:32:28 5.7 Phasing out 00:33:27 5.8 Nuclear power 00:34:07 5.9 Nuclear weapons 00:36:08 6 Production 00:37:55 6.1 Concentration 00:38:54 6.1.1 Acid digestion 00:40:19 6.1.2 Alkaline digestion 00:40:58 6.2 Purification 00:41:58 7 Modern applications 00:43:39 8 Potential use for nuclear energy 00:45:19 8.1 Advantages 00:47:18 8.2 Disadvantages 00:48:07 9 Hazards 00:52:30 9.1 Radiological 00:54:07 9.2 Biological 00:55:42 9.3 Chemical 00:58:42 9.4 Exposure routes 00:58:51 10 Notes 01:00:50 11 References 01:02:21 12 Bibliography 01:03:27 13 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. Thorium is silvery and tarnishes black when it is exposed to air, forming thorium dioxide; it is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point. Thorium is an electropositive actinide whose chemistry is dominated by the +4 oxidation state; it is quite reactive and can ignite in air when finely divided. All known thorium isotopes are unstable. The most stable isotope, 232Th, has a half-life of 14.05 billion years, or about the age of the universe; it decays very slowly via alpha decay, starting a decay chain named the thorium series that ends at stable 208Pb. In the universe, thorium and uranium are the only two radioactive elements that still occur naturally in large quantities as primordial elements. It is estimated to be over three times more abundant than uranium in the Earth's crust, and is chiefly refined from monazite sands as a by-product of extracting rare-earth metals. Thorium was discovered in 1829 by the Norwegian amateur mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. Its first applications were developed in the late 19th century. Thorium's radioactivity was widely acknowledged during the first decades of the 20th century. In the second half of the century, thorium was replaced in many uses due to concerns about its radioactivity. Thorium is still being used as an alloying element in TIG welding electrodes but is slowly being replaced in the field with different compositions. It was also a material in high-end optics and scientific instrumentation, and as the light source in gas mantles, but these uses have become marginal. It has been suggested as a replacement for uranium as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors, and several thorium reactors have been built.
Просмотров: 3 wikipedia tts
Sundaland | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sundaland Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Sundaland (also called the Sundaic region) is a biogeographical region of Southeastern Asia corresponding to a larger landmass that was exposed throughout the last 2.6 million years during periods when sea levels were lower. It includes the Malay Peninsula on the Asian mainland, as well as the large islands of Borneo, Java, and Sumatra and their surrounding islands.
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Sundaland | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sundaland Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Sundaland (also called the Sundaic region) is a biogeographical region of Southeastern Asia corresponding to a larger landmass that was exposed throughout the last 2.6 million years during periods when sea levels were lower. It includes the Malay Peninsula on the Asian mainland, as well as the large islands of Borneo, Java, and Sumatra and their surrounding islands.
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Sundaland | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sundaland Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Sundaland (also called the Sundaic region) is a biogeographical region of Southeastern Asia corresponding to a larger landmass that was exposed throughout the last 2.6 million years during periods when sea levels were lower. It includes the Malay Peninsula on the Asian mainland, as well as the large islands of Borneo, Java, and Sumatra and their surrounding islands.
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Geochronology | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Geochronology 00:01:16 1 Dating methods 00:01:25 1.1 Radiometric dating 00:03:46 1.2 Fission-track dating 00:03:55 1.3 Cosmogenic nuclide geochronology 00:04:43 1.4 Luminescence dating 00:05:22 1.5 Incremental dating 00:05:49 1.6 Paleomagnetic dating 00:06:50 1.7 Magnetostratigraphy 00:07:25 1.8 Chemostratigraphy 00:07:43 1.9 Correlation of marker horizons 00:08:26 2 Differences from chronostratigraphy 00:09:14 3 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves. Absolute geochronology can be accomplished through radioactive isotopes, whereas relative geochronology is provided by tools such as palaeomagnetism and stable isotope ratios. By combining multiple geochronological (and biostratigraphic) indicators the precision of the recovered age can be improved. Geochronology is different in application from biostratigraphy, which is the science of assigning sedimentary rocks to a known geological period via describing, cataloguing and comparing fossil floral and faunal assemblages. Biostratigraphy does not directly provide an absolute age determination of a rock, but merely places it within an interval of time at which that fossil assemblage is known to have coexisted. Both disciplines work together hand in hand however, to the point where they share the same system of naming rock layers and the time spans utilized to classify layers within a stratum. The science of geochronology is the prime tool used in the discipline of chronostratigraphy, which attempts to derive absolute age dates for all fossil assemblages and determine the geologic history of the Earth and extraterrestrial bodies.
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Sundaland | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Sundaland 00:00:24 1 Extent 00:02:43 2 Modern Climate 00:03:47 3 Modern Ecology 00:05:58 3.1 Ecoregions of Sundaland 00:07:36 3.2 Selected faunal references in Borneo 00:09:29 4 History 00:09:38 4.1 Early Research 00:11:04 4.2 Data Types 00:11:38 4.3 Climate 00:13:37 4.4 Ecology 00:14:08 4.4.1 Savanna Corridor Theory 00:17:42 4.4.2 Paleofauna 00:18:17 5 Human migrations 00:21:09 6 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Sundaland (also called the Sundaic region) is a biogeographical region of Southeastern Asia corresponding to a larger landmass that was exposed throughout the last 2.6 million years during periods when sea levels were lower. It includes the Malay Peninsula on the Asian mainland, as well as the large islands of Borneo, Java, and Sumatra and their surrounding islands.
Просмотров: 0 wikipedia tts