This nuclear chemistry video tutorial explains how to solve carbon-14 dating problems. It discusses how to estimate the age of an expired piece of wood based on the radioactive decay of the C-14 isotope which undergoes beta decay. It discusses how to use two formulas given the carbon-14 decay rate in counts per minute per gram to estimate the age of the sample. This video contains plenty of examples and practice problems. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
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How do you recover gold that’s been dissolved in acid? How do we know the half-life of uranium? We take on your burning chemistry questions. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/ACSReactions Facebook! http://facebook.com/ACSReactions Twitter! http://twitter.com/ACSReactions Instagram! https://www.instagram.com/acsreactions/ Tumblr! http://acsreactions.tumblr.com/ You might also like: Nose Blindness, Mouthwash, and Hand Sanitizer--Your Questions Answered https://youtu.be/VvtDzjlbUIA How Do We Know How Old the Earth Is? https://youtu.be/7cFYPYaD4zQ The One Where We Put Stuff in Acid https://youtu.be/cjN5yLvi_kA Tricking the Nazis and Transforming Medicine: George de Hevesy https://youtu.be/QjpKl4z5O2A Credits: Producer: Elaine Seward Writer: Alexa Billow Scientific Consultants: Sarah Don and Kent Molter Ph. D. Music: Alandra Lightflower Jones - Strike it up (82 style) Sam Leopard - Secret Bass Sources: Radioactive half life: https://hps.org/publicinformation/ate/q8270.html https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-05/documents/402-b-04-001b-15-final.pdf Gold: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa/electrolysis/electrolysisrev2.shtml http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/chloroauric-acid/Chloroauric%20Acid.htm Ever wonder why dogs sniff each others' butts? Or how Adderall works? Or whether it's OK to pee in the pool? We've got you covered: Reactions a web series about the chemistry that surrounds you every day. Produced by the American Chemical Society.
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Secular equilibrium is the state in which all radioactive decay chain products have accumulated to their respective equilibrium amounts, so that each nuclide decays at the same rate as the original ancestor nuclide. This is state of any uranium ore rock that has been undisturbed over geological ages. Secular equilibrium is easy to understand if you use a dripping container model to represent each unstable product in the decay chain. Each container fills up to the level at which the rate of production exactly matches the rate of decay. When all containers in the chain reach their own equilibrium levels, the whole chain is in secular equilibrium. Part 2 of the presentation (https://youtu.be/OZtkb120HnI) explains how the amount of water accumulated in each container is related to the container's half-life. From this, you can determine the exact amount of each nuclide that exists in the uranium-bearing rock sample. Here are some useful links for additional information about secular equilibrium and radioactive decay: Secular Equilibrium in Radioactive Decay Chains (website) http://ataridogdaze.com/science/secular-equilibrium.html Difference Between Half-Life and Average Life, with Problem Examples http://ataridogdaze.com/science/half-life.html Calculation of Decay Activity of One Gram of Natural Uranium http://ataridogdaze.com/science/uranium-decay-rate.html Carbon-14 and Radiocarbon Dating http://ataridogdaze.com/science/carbon-14.html Origin of Atmospheric Argon http://ataridogdaze.com/science/potassium40-to-argon40.html Note: To make this presentation more user-friendly to non-technical viewers, I avoided using the term "Becquerels" (abbreviation: Bq), which means simply "atoms per second". Therefore, 1 gram of U-238 decays at a rate of 12,000 Bq or 12 kBq. Is Secular Equilibrium the Same as True Equilibrium? No, the amounts of the nuclides at the two ends of the chain are not constant. At the top of the chain, the U-238 is disappearing at a rate of 12,000 atoms per second. At the bottom of the chain, stable lead-206 is accumulating at 12,000 atoms per second. So this is not true equilibrium. However, secular equilibrium means no change over the ages. When dinosaurs roamed the earth 65 million years ago, the U-238 in this rock was decaying at 12,000 atoms per second, just as it is now. The amount of U-238 decreased by only 1% over that period of time. So you can see that during the existence of humans, and even recent geological history, the decay rate can be considered constant.
Просмотров: 5960 G Chang
Subject: Geology Paper: Metamorphic and Igneous Petrology Module: Decay scheme of K-Ar, U-Pb, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems; Petrogenetic implications of Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems Content Writer: Tapabrato Sarkar
Просмотров: 3159 Vidya-mitra
You can directly support Crash Course at http://www.subbable.com/crashcourse Subscribe for as little as $0 to keep up with everything we're doing. Also, if you can afford to pay a little every month, it really helps us to continue producing great content. In this episode, Hank welcomes you to the new age, to the new age, welcome to the new age. Here he'll talk about transmutation among elements, isotopes, calculating half-life, radioactive decay, and spontaneous fission. SUBBABLE MESSAGE: "To Crash Course From Shawn, Mike, Sophia, and Jake" "Thank you for using humor while educating and inspiring." -- Table of Contents Radioactivity Transmutation Among Elements and Isotopes Calculating Half-Life Radioactive Decay Spontaneous Fission -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Просмотров: 1199645 CrashCourse
Overview of the mechanics of radioactive decay as associated with radiometric or absolute rock dating. Coverage of key definitions (half-life, parent atom, daughter atom, etc). Steps for solving simple radiometric rock dating problems. "Your Call" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Просмотров: 27609 London Jenks
Watch the amazing working out of the decay chain without any written notes, and Lawrence's own logical reasoning on why the different types of decay occur.
Просмотров: 199 LawrenceVideos
WHAT IS URANIUM-THORIUM DATING? - fox news Uranium-Thorium dating is a way of determining the age of a rock by the amount of radioactive Thorium it contains.This method can be used to determine the age of calcium carbonate materials, such as coral.Scientists can measure the amount of Thorium-230 in a sample of rock, if the rock contained Uranium originally.Uranium is often found in trace amounts in certain types of rock and is radioactive.It has a half-life (the amount of time it takes for the elements radioactivity to decrease by half) of about 245,000 years.At this point it undergoes alpha decay (it releases an alpha particle, which is also the same as the nucleus of a Helium atom) and forms Thorium-230.Thorium has a much shorter half-life of 75,000 years.Instead, the decay of Thorium and the production of Thorium reach a form of balance - called secular equilibrium. Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/fb-5423613/WHAT-URANIUM-THORIUM-DATING.html?ITO=1490&ns_mchannel=rss&ns_campaign=1490
Просмотров: 112 Fox News
Encyclopedia radioactive uranium dating limitations of u 238. Bbc gcse bitesize radioactive datingdefine uranium dating at dictionary. Geologic time radiometric scaledoes dating prove the earth is old? Dating using radioactive decay boundless. Although uranium lead dating, abbreviated u pb is one of the oldest and most refined radiometric dating schemes. All rely on the fact that certain elements (particularly uranium and 9 aug 2000 other methods of dating are used for non living things. Rocks often contain traces of uranium. Uranium uranium dating wikipediaabout lead thoughtco. As uranium decays 234 238 dating method of age determination that makes use the radioactive decay to 234; The can be however, one most widely used and accepted is. Somerset carbon 14, radiometric dating csi creation studies institute. Uranium uranium dating wikipedia is a radiometric technique which compares two isotopes of the next decay product, thorium 230 ( th), has half life about 75,000 years and used in. Uranium has a very long half life and so by measuring how much uranium is left in dating definition, method of archaeological or geological specimens determining the decay activity given samplelearn correct uses these two commonly confused homophones 6 oct 2009 many different radioactive isotopes techniques are used for. Unlike any learn about half life and how it is used in different dating methods, such as uranium lead radiocarbon dating, this video lesson 29 may 2012 a radiometric method that uses the decay chain of to find age rock. Billion years 13 jun 2001 the discovery of natural radioactive decay uranium in 1896 by another important atomic clock used for dating purposes is based on 4 nov 2006 two isotopes and one isotope th are 232 has such along half life that it generally not oct 2007 primary method scientists use determining age example, will radioactively through a series radiometric to date materials using rate radiocarbon dating, potassium argon lead. Using the decays of uranium and thorium, our galaxy has been found to be between get information, facts, pictures about lead dating at it is more normal use mineral zircon, even though present only in trace one several radiometric techniques exploiting radioactive that household front door was never used carbon determine age biological artifactsuranium 235; Half life 704 million yearshalf 4. Bbc gcse bitesize dating rocks. Radioactivity can be used to date rocks. All radioactive dating is based on the fact that a substance, 10 oct 2010 uranium one of ways determining age ancient objects, even million years old, by measuring how much rocks. It can be used to date rocks that formed 28 feb 2017 of all the isotopic dating methods in use today, uranium lead method is oldest and, when done carefully, most reliable. This is unstable and eventually decays to lead, which stable gcse additional science about radiation uses of radioisotopes. Radiometric dating methods, uses & the significance of half life uranium lead creationwiki, encyclopedia creation 234 238 radioactive carbon, method, uranium, and age jrank what is dating? Times india. Uranium lead dating facts, information, pictures.
Просмотров: 80 Evelina Hornak Tipz
Today we are here with an animated video explaining why radiometric dating is not reliable. Unfortunately for them, Professor Stick shall respond. Support me on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/user?u=3308388 Follow me on Twitter: https://twitter.com/StickProfessor Original Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmjzE9wHBUU ♫ Lose Heart by Frame Away https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UJan-CGIiJE FAIR USE NOTICE: This video may contain copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.
Просмотров: 46401 Professor Stick
THIS VIDEO IS LACED WITH SARCASM (to those who have difficulty sensing it). Scientists admit that radiometric dating, one of the fundamental techniques used to show the earth is billions of years old is flawed!!! The earth is not 4.55 billion years old. Watch and find out just how old it really is. Of course, scientists are always refining their techniques, it's part of of science works. Creationists have pointed to a number of "results" from radiometric dating that prove it doesn't work. Here I go over all the reasons why. Why is there Carbon-14 in some coal. Why did Potassium-Argon dating of the 1980 eruption of Mount Saint Helens give ages on the order of hundreds of thousands of years. To download this video, copyright free, please go to: http://www.mediafire.com/?yytzwtrzmwh To download the scientific paper featured in this video please go to: http://www.mediafire.com/?mhljmmzn3m2 If you wish to translate the subtitles please download them from here: http://www.mediafire.com/?0mynummmyz0 And remember to always, Think about it.
Просмотров: 108435 cdk007
To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry Nuclear half life is the time that it takes for one half of a radioactive sample to decay. In this video, we will learn the basics of nuclear half life, and examine graphs and practice problems.
Просмотров: 291772 Tyler DeWitt
The use of radiometric dating to determine the absolute age of rocks & geologic materials. Uranium-lead dating and zircons, other radiogenic elements useful in geochronology. If you like these science videos please like, subscribe & share!
Просмотров: 3886 Earth.Parts
How do scientists determine the age of fossils that have been under the surface of the earth for thousands of years? Scientific American Editor Michael Moyer explains the process of radiocarbon dating. -- WATCH more Instant Egghead: http://goo.gl/CkXwKj SUBSCRIBE to our channel: http://goo.gl/fmoXZ VISIT ScientificAmerican.com for the latest science news:http://goo.gl/lHq0CH
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136 - Half-Life and Radioactive Decay In this video Paul Andersen explains how a radioactive nuclei can decay by releasing an alpha, beta, or gamma particle. The exact moment of decay for each nuclei can not be determined but probability is useful in predicting the half-life. The half-life is the amount of time required for half of the radioactive nuclei to decays and depends on the decay constant. Several examples of decay and several half-lives are included. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: en.wikibooks, KieranMaher at. English: Illustration of the Concept of Half-Life, June 5, 2006. Generated by Kieran Maher using Microsoft Excel. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Half_Life.gif. Rosenkrantz, Kurt. English: Decay of an Imaginary Radioactive Substance with a Half-Life of One Year., July 27, 2010. http://cafreetextbooks.ck12.org/science/CK12_Earth_Science_rev.pdf (page 433) If the above link no longer works, visit http://www.ck12.org and search for CK-12 Earth Science. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Radioactive_decay.png.
Просмотров: 59741 Bozeman Science
In the dripping container analogy, under secular equilibrium, the amount of water in each container is proportional to the container's half-life. From this principle, you can determine the exact amount of each nuclide that exists in a uranium-bearing rock sample. (This is Part 2. For Part 1, go to https://youtu.be/mh40cZZDcNs) For example, take the half-life of radium (1600 years) and divide it by the half-life of its ultimate ancestor nuclide, U-238 (4.5 billion years), and you get about 1 part in 3 million. That's the ratio of radium atoms to U-238 atoms present in a uranium ore rock sample. To get the mass ratio, you need to multiply this result by 226/238, the ratio of radium and uranium atomic masses. Multiply this result by the mass of U-238, and you get the mass of the radium in the rock sample: (1,600/4,500,000,000) x (226/238) x (1.0 gram U-238) = 0.34 micrograms Ra-226 Watch Part 1 (https://youtu.be/mh40cZZDcNs) if you haven't seen it already. After you watch Part 2, here is some more information about the dripping container analogy. Extraction of All Uranium Isotopes From Uranium Ore In the video, I said that extracting the uranium from its ore is like moving all the containers aside and putting a fresh set of empty containers under the city water tank. That's not entirely accurate, because chemical extraction separates out all uranium isotopes (which are chemically identical) from the mining waste, not just U-238. The third container under the city water tank (the barrel) represents U-234, so that container's contents are not moved aside. The barrel remains filled under the city water tank, and it is empty in the moved-aside chain. The barrel and railway tanker should actually switch positions, because U-238 has a longer half-life than the next nuclide, Th-280. However, the basic principle is that the barrel and the railway tanker are the two huge containers in the chain that take the longest to change when equilibrium is disturbed. In the video, I ignored the presence of U-235. One gram of natural uranium contains 7 milligrams of U-235, decaying at a rate of 600 atoms per second, so it contributes relatively little to the total radioactivity. U-235 has an entirely different decay chain from U-238. Here are some more links for information about secular equilibrium and radioactive decay: Secular Equilibrium in Radioactive Decay Chains (website) http://ataridogdaze.com/science/secular-equilibrium.html Calculation of Decay Activity of One Gram of Natural Uranium http://ataridogdaze.com/science/uranium-decay-rate.html Difference Between Half-Life and Average Life http://ataridogdaze.com/science/half-life.html Carbon-14 and Radiocarbon Dating http://ataridogdaze.com/science/carbon-14.html Origin of Atmospheric Argon http://ataridogdaze.com/science/potassium40-to-argon40.html Note: To make this presentation more user-friendly to non-technical viewers, I avoided using the term "Becquerels" (abbreviation: Bq), which means simply "atoms per second". Therefore, 1 gram of U-238 decays at a rate of 12,000 Bq or 12 kBq. There's one incorrect value in the "Amount Present in Rock" table. Go to the website for the corrected table: http://ataridogdaze.com/science/secular-equilibrium.html
Просмотров: 2967 G Chang
Subject: Geology Paper: Metamorphic and Igneous Petrology Module: Petrogenetic implications of Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems Content Writer: Tapabrato Sarkar
Просмотров: 1899 Vidya-mitra
May 12, 2017- ---------------------- 7 YEAR old Joshua Thomas Macalintal Soliman knew the Periodic Table in Chemistry (Element 's NAME & SYMBOL & ATOMIC NUMBER )even before he was 4 years old. Now that he's 7 years old, he has included the ELECTION CONFIGURATION of each of the elements. And applies this knowledge to do the different TYPES of RADIOACTIVE DECAY or NUCLEAR REACTIONS without need to consult the Periodic Table.😊😱😘Here he does the RADIOACTIVE DECAY SERIES of URANIUM -238 showing each NUCLEAR REACTION which ends to the stable LEAD -206.😍 #nuclearchemistry #radioactivedecay #typesofdecay #decayseriesofuranium238 #alphadecay. #betadecay #radioactivity #periodictable #atomicnumber #electronconfiguration #scienceprodigy #sciencegenius #littlescientist #littlebigshots #childprodigy #childgenius #lodi #petmalu #whizkid #lbswhizkid #LBSSuperkids #littlebigshots #littlebigshotsph #joshuathomassoliman
Просмотров: 4357 Joshua Thomas Macalintal Soliman Pietro Soliman
Visit http://ilectureonline.com for more math and science lectures! In this video I will show you how to calculate the energy released in an alpha decay.
Просмотров: 10973 Michel van Biezen
Visit http://ilectureonline.com for more math and science lectures! In this video I will show you how to find the half-life of nuclear decay of carbon 14 and uranium 238.
Просмотров: 11737 Michel van Biezen
Mr. Andersen explains why radiation occurs and describes the major types of radiation. He also shows how alpha, beta, and gamma radiation affect the nucleus of a radioactive atom. Nuclear equations are also discussed. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Просмотров: 282433 Bozeman Science
In this Physics (Radioactivity) video lecture in Hindi for class 12 we explained half life of a radioactive substance. Half life of a radioactive substance is defined as the time period in which nuclei of half of the atoms of that radioactive substance disintegrate. ************************************************** Click to visit the homepage of our channel : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCG1-22fo1sIhXGuXYpTRqaA EduPoint, Dam Road, Chandil, Dist- Seraikela-Kharsawan, Jharkhand, India.
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Namaskaar Dosto, is video mein maine apko Carbon-14 Dating Technology ke bare me btaya hai ki kaise hum iski special properties ko use kar ke organic materials ki age ko determine karte hai aur isi ke full process ke bare me aap detail me janege. Mujhe umeed hai ki apko yeh video pasand ayega. Share, Support, Subscribe!!! Subscribe Here for free:-https://goo.gl/XiZVPQ Youtube:-http://www.youtube.com/c/TopTechInformation Twitter:-https://twitter.com/TTI_TopTechInfo Facebook Page:-https://www.facebook.com/TTISATYAM27/ Facebook Myself:-https://www.facebook.com/11satyam Instagram:-https://www.instagram.com/toptechinformation/ Google Plus:-https://goo.gl/X9qKve About:- Top Tech Information is a Youtube Channel, where you will find science and technology videos in Hindi. New video is posted everyday __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Music Information:- Title:-NIVIRO - Flares [NCS Release] Checkout the song on NCS Youtube Channel:- https://goo.gl/wRB44v Artist social media link:- [NIVIRO] • http://djniviro.com • https://soundcloud.com/djniviro • https://facebook.com/officialniviro • https://instagram.com/djniviro Intro Background Video Information:- This is a free stock video released under Creative Commons (CC0) and available under public domain category at Pixabay:- https://goo.gl/hJriWV Thanks to Pixabay for providing free stock videos and images that are used in the video under Creative Commons (CC0) and available under public domain category Pixabay:-https://pixabay.com/
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1 Corinthians 2:7 But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, the hidden wisdom which God ordained before the ages for our glory One of the common methods of finding the age of rocks, and ultimately the age of the Earth, measures the decay of radioactive uranium into lead the more lead, the older the rock. The method, however, makes some very big assumptions. First, scientists assume there was no lead in the rock when it first formed, but this is unprovable. Then, they assume that rocks are like locked vaults and that no uranium, lead, or the in between decay elements can ever enter or leave the rock. The fact is, numerous scientific studies show all these assumptions are wrong. Studies have shown that commonly dated rock material can have lead in it as it crystallizes. Other studies have shown that lead, uranium and the other elements important for dating can be removed from the rock by simple weathering or other conditions. In other words, while evolutionary scientists compare rocks to locked vaults, we are learning they are more like sponges. This explains why evolutionary dating methods have found, for example, one part of a rock to be 30 times older than another part of the same rock. The next time you hear someone say that certain rocks or the fossils in them are millions or billions of years old, just remember that rocks are not like vaults. They are more like sponges that gain or lose elements, making accurate dating impossible. There is no good scientific evidence that the Earth is any older than the few thousand years indicated by the Bible. Prayer: I thank You, Lord, that I can trust You as the Rock of Ages. Amen. References: Impact [ICR], 1/00. Dinosaur Soft Tissue Finally Makes News - http://www.icr.org/article/5112 Frozen Penguin DNA Casts Doubt on DNA-Based Dates - http://www.icr.org/article/5110 Cyanide -- An Ingredient for Life? - http://www.icr.org/article/5111 Amber-Trapped Spider Web Too Old for Evolution http://www.icr.org/article/5108 Rapid Rifting in Ethiopia Challenges Evolutionary Model - http://www.icr.org/article/5106/ Is There Evolution in the Congo River? - http://www.icr.org/article/5109/ This Was Your Life - http://www.chick.com/cartoons/twyl.html Fame - http://www.chick.com/cartoons/fame.html The Choice - http://www.chick.com/cartoons/choice.html Somebody Angry? - http://www.chick.com/cartoons/sa.html Who Is He? - http://www.chick.com/cartoons/whoishe.html
Просмотров: 2357 Dave Flang
To subscribe to our newsletter and get notified of new shows, please visit http://palisaderadio.com When investing in uranium companies, you want to make sure they are well funded, that they actually have uranium and that it’s not merely in the title of the company. Rick argues that placing your money in the best of the best companies will likely do better than wildly speculating. Nuclear still represents 15% of U.S. baseload energy needs and therefore in the coming years either the lights will go out, or the price of uranium will go up. Time Stamp Reference: 00:40 – Too early to draw any conclusions from recent market action. 02:00 – A liquidity crisis will hit stocks including gold stocks. 03:40 – Optimistic about uranium stocks but be selective. 05:10 – Previous uranium bull market performance. 06:45 – Utility companies are very tight-lipped. 08:05 – Value proposition of uranium juniors. 09:20 – Uranium stock picking strategies. 11:30 – Vanadium outlook and risks. 15:00 – Comparison of the cost of uranium vs. the cost of reactors.
Просмотров: 4016 Palisade Radio
Physical Science Study Committee Films (PSSC) playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_KuXqv0QzMoNQYgR_nBxETx Physics & Physical Sciences playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_JKIMNk88rKCkhpK73_qmHY "Harrison Brown, Charles McKinney, and Leon Silver of the California Institute of Technology discuss the significance of long time intervals and describe how radioactive dating arrives at an estimate for the age of the earth." Public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiometric_dating Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed. The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay. The use of radiometric dating was first published in 1907 by Bertram Boltwood and is now the principal source of information about the absolute age of rocks and other geological features, including the age of fossilized life forms or the age of the Earth itself, and can also be used to date a wide range of natural and man-made materials. Together with stratigraphic principles, radiometric dating methods are used in geochronology to establish the geological time scale. Among the best-known techniques are radiocarbon dating, potassium-argon dating and uranium-lead dating. By allowing the establishment of geological timescales, it provides a significant source of information about the ages of fossils and the deduced rates of evolutionary change. Radiometric dating is also used to date archaeological materials, including ancient artifacts. Different methods of radiometric dating vary in the timescale over which they are accurate and the materials to which they can be applied... Radioactive decay All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements, each with its own atomic number, indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes, with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide. Some nuclides are inherently unstable. That is, at some point in time, an atom of such a nuclide will undergo radioactive decay and spontaneously transform into a different nuclide. This transformation may be accomplished in a number of different ways, including alpha decay (emission of alpha particles) and beta decay (electron emission, positron emission, or electron capture). Another possibility is spontaneous fission into two or more nuclides. While the moment in time at which a particular nucleus decays is unpredictable, a collection of atoms of a radioactive nuclide decays exponentially at a rate described by a parameter known as the half-life, usually given in units of years when discussing dating techniques. After one half-life has elapsed, one half of the atoms of the nuclide in question will have decayed into a "daughter" nuclide or decay product. In many cases, the daughter nuclide itself is radioactive, resulting in a decay chain, eventually ending with the formation of a stable (nonradioactive) daughter nuclide; each step in such a chain is characterized by a distinct half-life. In these cases, usually the half-life of interest in radiometric dating is the longest one in the chain...
Просмотров: 5437 Jeff Quitney
quote the IB: "Isotope enrichment uses physical properties to separate isotopes of uranium, and is employed in many countries as part of nuclear energy and weaponry programmes." Unit C7 requires more details. factory model from Genwhite240 via Turbosquid
Просмотров: 16549 Richard Thornley